Peruvian Sites in the UNESCO World Heritage
The World Heritage List includes 830 properties forming part of the cultural and natural heritage which the World Heritage Committee considers as having outstanding universal value. Ten of those sites are located within Peru's territory
- 1983 - City of Cuzco
- 1983 - Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu
- 1985 - Archaeological Site of Chavin
- 1985 - Huascarán National Park
- 1986 - Chan Chan Archaeological Zone
- 1987 - Manu National Park
- 1988 - Historic Centre of Lima
- 1990 - Rio Abiseo National Park
- 1994 - The Lines and Geoglyphs of Nasca and Pampas de Juma
- 2000 - Historical Centre of the City of Arequipa
City of Cuzco (1983)
Located in the south-eastern Peruvian Andes and known as the "Archeological Capital of the Americas". Cuzco developed under the Inca ruler Pachacutec, into a complex urban centre with distinct religious and administrative functions. It was surrounded by clearly delineated areas for agricultural, artisan and industrial production. When the Spaniards conquered it in the 16th century, they maintained its structure but built Baroque churches and palaces over the ruins of the Inca city.
Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (1983)
The site is located on the highest part of the eastern Andes, above the Rio Urabamba and northwest of Cuzco (Cuzco Department). At 2,430 metres above sea level, on a mountain site of extraordinary beauty, in the middle of a tropical mountain forest, Machu Picchu was probably the most amazing urban creation of the Inca Empire at its height, with its giant walls, terraces and ramps, which appear as though they have been cut naturally in the continuous rock escarpments. The natural setting on the eastern slope of the Andes encompasses the upper Amazon basin with its rich diversity of species.
Archaeological Site of Chavin (1985)
This archaeological site gave its name to the culture that developed in this high valley of the Peruvian Andes between 1500 and 300 B.C. The architecture of this complex of terraces and squares, surrounded by structures of dressed stone, and its largely zoomorphic ornamental structure, give a striking appearance to this former place of worship, one of the earliest and best-known pre-Colombian sites.
Huascaran National Park (1985)
Located in the Cordillera Blanca, Sierra Central of Peru in the Andean Department of Ancash. the park spans parts of the provinces of Recuay, Huaraz, Carhuaz, Yungay, Huaylas, Pomabamba, Mariscal Luzuriaga, Huari Corongo, Sihuas and Bolognesi. On the Cordillera Blanca, the world's highest tropical mountain range, Mount Huascaran rises to 6,768 metres above sea level. The deep ravines watered by numerous torrents, the glacial lakes and the variety of the vegetation make it a site of spectacular beauty, the home of such species as the spectacled bear and the Andean condor.
Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (1986)
The Chimu kingdom, of which Chan Chan was the capital, reached its peak in the 15th century, not long before falling under the Incas. The planning of this huge city, the biggest in pre-Colombian America, reflects a strict political and social strategy, marked by its division into nine "citadels" or "palaces" forming independent units.
Chan Chan is also mentioned in the List of World Heritage in Danger since 1986.
Manu National Park (1987)
The park is located in the provinces of Manu and Paucartambo (Departments of Madre de Dios and Cuzco respectively), comprising lands on the eastern slopes of the Andes and on the Peruvian Amazones.
This immense 1.5 million-hectare park has successive tiers of vegetation rising from 150 to 4,200 metres above sea-level. The tropical forest in the lower tiers contains an unrivalled variety of animal and plant species. Some 850 species of birds have been identified and rare species such as the giant otter and the giant armadillo have found refuge there. Jaguars are often sighted in the park.
Historic Centre of Lima (1988, 1991*)
Although severely damaged by earthquakes (in 1940, 1966, 1970 and 1974), this "City of Kings" was, until the middle of the 18th century, the capital and most important city of the Spanish dominions in South America. Many of its buildings, such as the San Francisco Convent (the biggest in this part of the world) are the result of joint creations between local craftsmen and masters from the Old Continent. The Historic Center lodges old colonial and republican mansions as well as churches rich in history such as the Cathedral and Torre Tagle palace which today is headquarters of the Ministry of Foregein Affairs.
Rio Abiseo National Park (1990)
The park is located in the department of San Martin, province of Mariscal Caceres, district of Huicungo at a crossroads between the Maranon and Huallaga rivers and covers 70% of the Abiseo River basin.
The park was created in 1983 to protect the fauna and flora of the humid forests characteristic of this part of the Andes. There is a high level of endemism among the fauna and flora species of this park. The yellow-tailed woolly monkey, previously thought extinct, is found only in this area. Research undertaken since 1985 has already uncovered 36 archaeological sites unknown until then, at altitudes of between 2,500 and 4,000 metres, which give a very good picture of pre-Inca society.
Lines and Geoglyphis of Nasca and Pampas de Jumana (1994)
Located in the arid Peruvian coastal plain, some 400 km south of Lima, the geoglyphs of Nasca and the Pampas of Jumana cover about 450 square km. These lines, which were drawn between 500 B.C. and 500 A.D., are among the most impenetrable enigmas of archaeology by virtue of their quantity, nature and size, as well as their continuity. They only can be seen from the air. Some of the geoglyphs depict living creatures, plants or imaginary figures, as well as geometric figures several kilometres long. They are believed to have had ritual functions connected with astronomy.
Historical Centre of the City of Arequipa (2000)
The Historic Centre of Arequipa, built in volcanic sillar rock, represents an integration of European and native building techniques and characteristics, expressed in the admirable work of colonial masters and criollo and Indian masons. This is illustrated by its robust walls, archways and vaults, courtyards and open spaces, and the intricate Baroque decoration of its facades.